Quarterly Earnings Conference Calls

I'm a software developer and new to trading. I was hoping someone could shed some light on some questions I have regarding Quarterly Earnings Conference Calls:

*Do companies always pre-empt the conference call with a press release of earnings figures? Or are there ever times when the actual call is the first time that investors get to hear the earnings figures?

* Is the market ever still open during a conference call?

* Are there any other regular public calls that companies engage in, other than Quarterly Earnings Conference Calls?

Any insight into these questions would be really really helpful.