# Heath-Jarrow-Morton Model

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## Definition of 'Heath-Jarrow-Morton Model'

The Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) model is a mathematical model that describes the evolution of interest rates over time. It is a multi-factor model, which means that it takes into account multiple factors that can affect interest rates, such as the level of inflation, the level of economic activity, and the risk of default.

The HJM model was developed by David Heath, Robert Jarrow, and Andrew Morton in 1992. It is a popular model for pricing interest rate derivatives, such as swaps, caps, and floors.

The HJM model is based on the concept of a forward rate curve. A forward rate curve is a plot of the forward interest rates for different maturities. The forward interest rate for a given maturity is the interest rate that is expected to prevail at that maturity.

The HJM model assumes that the forward rate curve is generated by a stochastic process. A stochastic process is a process that is not deterministic, but rather follows a random path. The HJM model uses a particular type of stochastic process called a Markov process.

A Markov process is a stochastic process in which the future state of the process depends only on the current state of the process. This means that the past history of the process does not affect the future evolution of the process.

The HJM model uses a particular type of Markov process called a Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) process. A HJM process is a Markov process that is defined by a set of stochastic differential equations.

The HJM model can be used to price interest rate derivatives. To price an interest rate derivative, the HJM model is used to generate a set of forward rate curves. The forward rate curves are then used to price the derivative.

The HJM model is a complex model, but it is a powerful tool for pricing interest rate derivatives. The HJM model is used by many banks and financial institutions to price interest rate derivatives.

The HJM model has a number of advantages over other interest rate models. First, the HJM model is a multi-factor model, which means that it takes into account multiple factors that can affect interest rates. This makes the HJM model more realistic than other interest rate models. Second, the HJM model is a stochastic model, which means that it can take into account the uncertainty in the future evolution of interest rates. This makes the HJM model more flexible than other interest rate models.

The HJM model also has a number of disadvantages. First, the HJM model is a complex model, which can make it difficult to understand and use. Second, the HJM model requires a large amount of data to calibrate. Third, the HJM model can be computationally expensive to use.

Despite its disadvantages, the HJM model is a valuable tool for pricing interest rate derivatives. The HJM model is a complex model, but it is a powerful tool that can be used to price a wide variety of interest rate derivatives.

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