# Law of Large Numbers

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## Definition of 'Law of Large Numbers'

The law of large numbers is a fundamental principle of probability theory that states that the average of the results of a large number of independent experiments will be close to the expected value, and will tend to become closer as the number of experiments increases. This principle has important implications for financial risk management, as it means that the risk of a particular event can be estimated by looking at the historical data.

The law of large numbers can be used to calculate the probability of an event occurring, even if the probability of that event occurring is very small. For example, the probability of flipping a coin and getting heads is 1/2. If you flip a coin 10 times, you would expect to get heads about 5 times. However, it is possible to get heads 10 times in a row, or to get tails 10 times in a row. This is because the law of large numbers only applies in the long run. In the short run, there is always the possibility of getting a result that is very different from the expected value.

The law of large numbers is also used to calculate the expected value of a random variable. The expected value of a random variable is the average value that the variable will take over a large number of trials. For example, the expected value of a coin flip is 0.5, because the probability of getting heads is 1/2 and the probability of getting tails is 1/2.

The law of large numbers is a powerful tool for financial risk management. It can be used to estimate the probability of an event occurring, and to calculate the expected value of a random variable. This information can be used to make informed decisions about financial investments and risk management strategies.

Here are some additional examples of how the law of large numbers is used in finance:

* To estimate the probability of default on a loan, banks will look at the historical default rates of similar loans.
* To calculate the expected return on an investment, investors will look at the historical returns of similar investments.
* To determine the appropriate level of insurance coverage, businesses will look at the historical losses that they have experienced.

The law of large numbers is a fundamental principle of probability theory that has important implications for financial risk management. It can be used to estimate the probability of an event occurring, and to calculate the expected value of a random variable. This information can be used to make informed decisions about financial investments and risk management strategies.

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