# Non-Sampling Error

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## Definition of 'Non-Sampling Error'

Non-sampling error is a type of error that occurs in statistical surveys when the sample is not representative of the population. This can happen for a variety of reasons, such as:

* **Inaccurate sampling frame:** The sampling frame is the list of all the units in the population that are eligible to be selected for the sample. If the sampling frame is not accurate, then the sample will not be representative of the population.
* **Non-response:** Non-response occurs when some units in the population that are selected for the sample do not participate in the survey. This can bias the results of the survey, because the non-respondents may be different from the respondents in important ways.
* **Measurement error:** Measurement error occurs when the data that is collected is not accurate. This can happen for a variety of reasons, such as:
* The questions on the survey are not clear or are not understood by the respondents.
* The respondents do not have the information that is being asked for.
* The respondents are not motivated to provide accurate information.

Non-sampling error can have a significant impact on the results of a survey. Therefore, it is important to take steps to minimize non-sampling error whenever possible.

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There are a number of things that can be done to minimize non-sampling error. These include:

* **Using a good sampling frame:** The sampling frame should be as accurate and complete as possible. This can be done by using a list of all the units in the population, or by using a random sample of the population.
* **Encouraging participation:** Efforts should be made to encourage all units in the population that are selected for the sample to participate in the survey. This can be done by providing incentives to participate, or by making the survey as easy and convenient as possible.
* **Using good measurement techniques:** The questions on the survey should be clear and easy to understand. The respondents should be given enough time to answer the questions, and they should be motivated to provide accurate information.

By taking these steps, it is possible to minimize non-sampling error and ensure that the results of a survey are accurate and reliable.

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Non-sampling error is an important concept to understand for anyone who is involved in conducting or using surveys. By understanding the different types of non-sampling error and the steps that can be taken to minimize them, it is possible to ensure that the results of a survey are accurate and reliable.

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