# P-Value

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## Definition of 'P-Value'

A P-value is a statistical measure of the probability that an observed difference between two groups could have occurred by chance. It is calculated by dividing the probability of observing the difference between the groups, if the null hypothesis is true, by the probability of observing the difference between the groups, if the alternative hypothesis is true.

P-values are used to determine the statistical significance of a result. A p-value of less than 0.05 is generally considered to be statistically significant, meaning that there is less than a 5% chance that the observed difference between the groups could have occurred by chance.

P-values are important because they help researchers to determine whether or not their results are meaningful. A p-value of less than 0.05 indicates that the results are statistically significant and are unlikely to have occurred by chance. This means that the researcher can be confident that the results are valid and can be used to support their conclusions.

However, it is important to note that a p-value of less than 0.05 does not prove that the null hypothesis is false. It simply indicates that the results are statistically significant and are unlikely to have occurred by chance. Therefore, researchers should always interpret their results in the context of the study design and the available data.

P-values are also used to calculate confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of the population parameter. The width of the confidence interval is determined by the sample size and the p-value. A wider confidence interval indicates that there is more uncertainty about the true value of the population parameter.

P-values are an important tool for statistical analysis, but they should be interpreted with caution. Researchers should always consider the study design, the available data, and the context of the results when interpreting p-values.

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