# Quantity Theory of Money

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## Definition of 'Quantity Theory of Money'

The quantity theory of money is a theory that states that the money supply has a direct, proportional relationship with the price level. In other words, if the money supply increases, the price level will increase, and vice versa.

The quantity theory of money is based on the equation of exchange, which states that MV = PQ. In this equation, M is the money supply, V is the velocity of money, P is the price level, and Q is the real output of goods and services.

The quantity theory of money assumes that V and Q are constant. This means that if M increases, P must also increase in order to keep the equation of exchange in balance.

The quantity theory of money has been used to explain the relationship between inflation and the money supply. When the money supply increases, it leads to an increase in the price level, which is known as inflation. This is because the increased money supply leads to more demand for goods and services, which in turn drives up prices.

The quantity theory of money has also been used to argue for the need for central banks to control the money supply. Central banks can control the money supply by buying and selling government bonds. When the central bank buys government bonds, it increases the money supply. When the central bank sells government bonds, it decreases the money supply.

The quantity theory of money is a controversial theory. Some economists believe that it is too simplistic and that it does not take into account other factors that affect the price level, such as supply and demand. However, the quantity theory of money remains an important theory in macroeconomics and is used by central banks to set monetary policy.

In addition to the basic quantity theory of money, there are also several variants of the theory. One variant is the Cambridge cash-balance theory, which states that the demand for money is proportional to the price level and the level of real output. Another variant is the Fisher equation, which states that the nominal interest rate is equal to the real interest rate plus the expected rate of inflation.

The quantity theory of money is a complex and controversial theory. However, it remains an important theory in macroeconomics and is used by central banks to set monetary policy.

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