# Multiplier

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## Definition of 'Multiplier'

A multiplier is a factor that is multiplied by a given number to calculate a resulting number. In finance, the multiplier is often used to calculate the change in a variable in response to a change in another variable. For example, the multiplier effect is the concept that a change in investment spending will lead to a larger change in national income.

The multiplier effect works because when businesses invest in new capital goods, they create jobs and income for workers. This increased income leads to increased consumer spending, which in turn leads to further increases in investment and income. The multiplier effect can be expressed mathematically as follows:

```
?Y = 1 / (1 - MPC) * ?I
```

where ?Y is the change in national income, ?I is the change in investment spending, and MPC is the marginal propensity to consume. The marginal propensity to consume is the fraction of an additional dollar of income that is spent on consumption.

The multiplier effect can be used to explain how government spending can be used to stimulate the economy. When the government increases spending, it creates jobs and income for workers. This increased income leads to increased consumer spending, which in turn leads to further increases in investment and income. The multiplier effect can magnify the impact of government spending, making it a powerful tool for economic stimulus.

However, the multiplier effect is not always as strong as it is in theory. In practice, there are a number of factors that can weaken the multiplier effect, including:

* Savings: If households save a large portion of their income, the multiplier effect will be smaller.
* Imports: If the goods and services that are produced as a result of the government spending are imported, the multiplier effect will be smaller.
* Foreign investment: If foreign investors withdraw their money from the economy, the multiplier effect will be smaller.

The multiplier effect is a complex concept with a number of important implications for economic policy. By understanding the multiplier effect, policymakers can better understand the impact of their decisions on the economy.

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