# Time Value of Money (TVM)

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## Definition of 'Time Value of Money (TVM)'

The time value of money (TVM) is the concept that money today is worth more than the same amount of money in the future due to its potential earning capacity. This is because money can be invested and earn interest, which will increase its value over time.

The TVM is a fundamental concept in finance and is used in a variety of applications, such as calculating the present value of future cash flows, determining the appropriate discount rate for a project, and valuing investments.

There are two main components to the TVM:

* **The interest rate:** This is the rate at which money can be invested to earn interest. The higher the interest rate, the more valuable money today will be in the future.
* **The time period:** This is the length of time over which the money will be invested. The longer the time period, the more valuable money today will be in the future.

The TVM can be calculated using a variety of formulas, but the most common is the present value formula:

```
PV = FV / (1 + r)^t
```

where:

* PV is the present value of the future cash flow
* FV is the future value of the cash flow
* r is the interest rate
* t is the time period

The present value formula can be used to calculate the value of a future cash flow today. For example, if you are offered a \$100,000 payment in one year, the present value of that payment is \$95,238 if the interest rate is 5%. This is because \$95,238 invested at 5% for one year will grow to \$100,000.

The TVM can also be used to calculate the future value of a present cash flow. For example, if you invest \$100,000 today at 5%, the future value of that investment will be \$127,628 in one year. This is because \$100,000 invested at 5% for one year will grow to \$127,628.

The TVM is a powerful concept that can be used to make informed financial decisions. By understanding the TVM, you can make better choices about how to invest your money and grow your wealth.

Here are some additional examples of how the TVM can be used:

* To calculate the monthly payment on a mortgage
* To determine the cost of borrowing money
* To evaluate the profitability of an investment
* To compare different investment options

The TVM is a fundamental concept in finance and is used in a variety of applications. By understanding the TVM, you can make better financial decisions and achieve your financial goals.

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